About the Author
The information in this oriental rug guide was compiled by persian rug expert Barry O’Connell, Senior Fellow Academy of Oriental Rugs.
Below are the author’s notes. These notes are referenced in various areas of the guide. Here is a link to books sometimes cited by the author: rug books.
Notes on A. Cecil Edwards
Edwards is considered by many people the single greatest western expert on The Persian Carpet. If he isn’t then he is among the very best.
Edwards was the buyer for OCM the major British importer and he traveled extensively in Persia buying carpets for 14 years.
Edwards, A. Cecil. The Persian Carpet. London 1953. The standard text on the subject.
Edwards, A. Cecil. The Persian Carpet. London: 1991.
Edwards, A. C. The Persian Carpet. 1977 (1983 impression),
Edwards, Cecil A., The Persian Carpet, Duckworth, London, 1975
Edwards was the nephew of James Baker who was one of the founders of OCM. Baker was the son of George Baker the official gardener for the Turkish sultan. 83 Textile Museum Conference.
Clara Carey Case Edwards, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Case, was a graduate of Bryn Mawr College (class of 1904). Her twin sisters, Mary C. Case and Adelaide T. Case, also attended Bryn Mawr (class of 1908). In 1909, Clara married Cecil Edwards, who worked for The Oriental Carpet Manufacturers Ltd. The business was based in Istanbul, Turkey and manufactured and exported oriental carpets, both Turkish and Persian, to the West. In 1911, the Edwards moved to Hamadan, Iran, so that Cecil could take charge of the business there, and while in Hamadan, Clara taught for some time at The American Boys’ School. Their son, Arthur, was born in Hamadan on 11 February 1918. The Edwards traveled in Iran and Russia, partly for Cecil’s work, and partly in reaction to events related to World War I. They also made several trips to the United States to visit Clara’s family.
In 1923, they left Iran and spent eight months in India (now Pakistan) visiting carpet weaving centers before arriving in England. The Edwards settled in London, where they became friends with historian Arnold Toynbee and the William Blake bibliographer Geoffrey Keynes. During World War II, they moved to Oxford, returning to London after the war was over.
The Edwards returned to Iran once more, in 1948, so that Cecil could complete research for his book, The Persian Carpet: A Survey of the Carpet Weaving Industry of Persia (London: Duckworth, 1953). Around 1946, Clara’s mind had begun to fail, and in 1951, she entered St. George’s Retreat near Brighton. Cecil died in 1953; Clara, in 1955.
Notes on A. J. Timothy Jull
Dr. Jull did the c14 testing on the James C. Allen 17th century Tekke Juval.
Dr. Jull is the top authority in the world today on c14 dating techniques, He gained wide attention in his work on the Dead Sea Scrolls and also on the Shroud of Turin.
Research Scientist, Geosciences and Physics, University of Arizona, PAS 249, Tucson, AZ 85721
Performed the c14 testing on the Allen Juval.
Notes on Abolala Soudavar
Iranian American collector and private scholar.
Soudavar, Abolala. Art of the Persian Court Selections from the Art and History Trust Collection. New York: Rizzoli 1992.
Lecture ‘The Mughals and the Legitimacy Problems of the House of Timur’. November18, 1999, Victoria and Albert Museum, London UK.
Member Fund Raising Committe The Society for Iranian Studies
Smithsonian Show: ”The Jewel and the Rose: Art for Shah Jahan,” Paintings and calligraphy from Iran and Islamic India lent by the collector Abolala Soudavar, 97 to Feb. 1. 1998. Hung by Massumeh Farhad, associate curator of Islamic Art, in conjunction with the ”Padshah Nama” show.
Honorary Member Center for Middle Eastern Studies. University of Chicago,
The Mirak Collection
Lecture: The Concepts of “Al-aqdamo asahh” and “Yaqin-e sabeq”. Discussant: Dick Davis, Ohio State University, The Second Biennial Conference on Iranian Studies Sponsored by The American Institute of Iranian Studies (AIIS) The Society for Iranian Studies (SIS).
Soudavar, Abolala. Beach, Milo Cleveland, Art of the Persian Court. New York: Rizzoli, 1992.
This is one of the most important books on Persian miniature art ever printed. Soudavar has done a book that is about as good as it gets. Great pictures, sharp commentary, and solid scholarship. Additionally this book is so pretty it is a work of art itself. If you have any interest in miniature art you should have this book.
Note on Abu Silk
Abr silk or as some people call it Ikat is resist dyed silk. Abr is Persian for “cloud like” whereas Ikat is the Indonesian term for a similar cloth. For hundreds of years at least to the time of Cingisi Qahan silk robes were given to honored guests by rulers in Southwest Asia. From the time of it’s introduction in the 18th century Abr was quickly recognized as the ultimate fabric in a land where fabric was money. With the great value placed on Abr when a garment is too far gone to use the Abr is treasured and used for other uses such as Uzbek Abr (Ikat) Silk Cover.
Notes on Afghanistan
Afghanistan is made up of at least 4 separate areas and whose people speak 44 different languages. The southern half of Afghanistan is the northern half of Pashtunistan the other half was made into part of Pakistan by the British. The Northwest of Afghanistan is actually half of Khorasan Persia, which was partitioned by the British. The dominant city in this region is Herat, which is a historical center of Persian civilization. The center highland is the Hazarajat, the land of the Hazara. The Hazara are a separate people with a distinct ethnicity, look, and religion. The North is the southern section of Turkestan. The dominant city is Mazar-I-Sheriff which is predominantly Uzbek.Afghanistan is located in Southwestern Asia. In the west is the Islamic Republic of Iran, South and southeast is Pakistan, in the north Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and the eastern most part borders China.
Afghanistan is divided by steep mountains and is very hot in summer and equally cold in winter. Of the seven North-south passes through the Hindu Kush are navigable in winter.
It is a rugged, mountainous country with cold winters and hot summers. Measuring 647,500 square km it is almost the size of the State of Texas. The country is very poor with only a few miles of railroads, no navigable waterways, no ports and the people are primarily small farmers and herders.
Afghanistan has almost 26 million people. The primary languages are Dari and then Pashto.
Notes on Akbar
Reigned 1556 – 1605
Akbar succeeded his father Humayun and became a Shah of Shah or Padishah in India, he died in 1605
Akbar as a young man memorized large portions of the Hamza-nama and preformed them.
Possibly dyslexic Akbar was unable to read but he had a keen mind and a vast intellect.
Akbar was 14 when he became king.
February 14 1556. Akbar becomes the Mogul Padishah. He was crowned at Kalanaur.
Established Akbarabad in 1565
Akbar shot tigers near Mathura.
During the reign of Akbar carpet was woven at Agra and Fathpur Sikri.
When Akbar died in 1606 his library had 24,000 volumes.
Akbar dies October 17 – 27, 1605.
Notes on Alan Marcuson
Alan Marcuson has been a pioneer in a number of area. From Rolling Stoning Magazine in the 1960s Editor of Hali, Publisher of great books, to the Internet’s premier Oriental Rug sales site www.Cloudband.com Alan has had a great influence.
Alan Marcuson was born in South Africa.
London editor of Rolling Stone Magazine.
Founder, Editor and Publisher of Friends later called Frendz.
Deputy Editor, Editor, and Editor Publisher of Hali and for many years the creative drive behind the magazine.
Marcuson started the Hali Annuals.
Spearheaded Hali Publications and produced “The Markarian Album”, “Anatolian Kelims”, “Baluchi Woven Treasures”, “Orient Stars”, and “Moroccan Carpets”.
Since leaving Hali, Marcuson has been involved in publishing 3 more books on textiles and Asian art; namely “Early Nasca Needlework” by Alan Sawyer, “Tibetan Art: Towards a Definition in Style” Edited by Jane Singer and Philip Denwood and “Ikat: Silks of Central Asia” by Kate Fitz Gibbon & Andrew Hale, which won the ARLIS (American Society of Arts Librarians) George Wittenborn Award for the Best Art Book of 1997.
He now is involved in a few other long term publishing projects, is a consultant and dealer in esoteric and rare carpets & textiles and a regular contributor to Ghereh magazine.
Notes on Alberto and Anna Levi
Alberto Levi is one of the world’s great rug dealers and rug scholars. Son of the late Shlomo Levi Ghassemoff and brother of Davide Halevim. He is active with the ICOC and is a Member Executive Committee ICOC.
Alberto and Anna were married Thanksgiving 2008. Anna was in marketing for a major pharacetical company znd shows a real understanding of oriental rugs.
Notes on Alberto Boralevi
Alberto Boralevi is one of the world’s top experts in carpets particularly classical.
Boralevi also is one of Europe’s top carpet dealers as Alberto Boralevi Antique rugs and Textiles. He can also be seen as one of the best dealers on www.Cloudband.com
Boralevi, A. L’Ushak Castellani – Stroganoff. Firenze: 1987.
Boralevi, A. & Mantiglia, G.C. From the Far West. Sardinian Textiles and Rugs From the Sixteenth Century Until Today. Il Tappeto Parlante, 1997.
Boralevi, Alberto, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.
Boralevi, Alberto. “Three Egyptian Carpets in Italy.” In Oriental Carpet and Textile Studies II.- Carpets of the Mediterranean Countries 1400 – 1600, ed. Robert Pinner and Walter B. Denny. London, 1986. Pp. 2OS-20.
Boralevi, Alberto. “The Discovery of two Great Carpets: The Cairene Carpets of the Medici, Hali, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 282-83. London.1983
Notes on Aleksei Malashenko
Chechnya expert and Scholar-in-Residence at the Moscow Carnegie Center.Aleksei Malashenko co-chairs (with Martha Brill Olcott) the “Ethnicity and Nation-Building” program. This program examines the rise of nationalism, the problem of sustainable development in the oil-producing states of the Caspian Basin, the creation of a new class of political and economic elites, and the changing role of Islam in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Russia, and elsewhere in Eurasia.
Aleksei Malashenko and Dmitri Trenin. The Time of the South: Russia in Chechnya, Chechnya in Russia. September 2002. 267 pp. In Russian
Islam in the Post-Soviet Newly Independent States: The View from Within / Aleksei Malashenko and Martha Brill Olcott, Eds. July 2001. 320 pp. In Russian
Language and Ethnic Conflicts / Martha Brill Olcott and Ilya Semenov, Eds. July 2001. 150 pp. In Russian
Aleksei Malashenko. Islamic Factor in the Northern Caucasus / March 2001, 180 pp. In Russian.
Reality of Ethnic Myths / Malashenko, Aleksei, Olcott, Martha Brill, Eds. October 2000, 99 pp.
Multi-Dimensional Borders of Central Asia / Malashenko Aleksei, Martha Brill Olcott, Eds. April 2000, 97 pp.
What Do Russia’s Regions Want? / Malashenko, Aleksei, Ed. October 1999, 104 pp.
Intolerance in Russia: Old and New Phobias / Malashenko, Alexei and Vitkovskaya, Galina, Eds. Edited Volume, May 1999, 196 pp.
Ethnicity and Confessional Tradition in the Volga-Ural Region of Russia / Malashenko, Alexei and Unusova, Aislu, Eds. Edited Volume, October 1998, 124 pp.
Cossack Revival: Hopes and Fears / Malashenko, Alexei and Vitkovskaya, Galina, Eds. Occasional Papers, #23, September 1998, 242 pp.
Factor of Ethno-Confessional Identity in Post-Soviet Society / Malashenko, Alexei and Olcott, Martha, Eds. Edited Volume, July 1998, 204 pp.
Malashenko, Alexei. The Islamic Renaissance in Contemporary Russia. Monograph, March 1998, 224 pp.
Religion and State in Modern Russia / Olcott, Martha Brill and Malashenko, Alexei, Eds. Occasional Papers, #18, September 1997, 117 pp.
Ecology, Society and Tradition: Social and Political Crisis in the CIS in the Context of Environmental Destruction / Malashenko, Alexei and Olcott, Martha Brill, Eds. Occasional Papes, #15, May 1997, 70 pp.
Identity and Conflict in the Post-Soviet States / Malashenko, Olcott, and Tishkov, Eds. Edited Volume, April 1997, 490 pp.
Notes on Ambassador Amedeo de Franchis
Ambassador Amedeo de Franchis is an Italian diplomat, author, and Trustee of the Near Eastern Art Research Center.
de Franchis was with the Italian Embassy in Teheran and was a member of the Teheran Rug Society.
de Franchis, A. and John T. Wertime: Lori and Bakhtiyari Flatweaves. Tehran: Tehran Rug Society, 1976.
Ambassador Amedeo de Franchis was born on 9th August 1939 in Naples.
He received his law degree in 1961 from the University of Rome and entered the diplomatic service in September 1962.
From 1962 to 1965, Mr. de Franchis served at the East-West Desk in the Political Affairs General Directorate of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Rome.
After fulfilling military service obligations as an army lieutenant in the Alpine forces, he returned to Political Affairs at the Ministry until July 1967.
From July 1967 to December 1970, Mr. de Franchis was assigned to the Italian Consulate General in New York, first as Vice Consul and then a Deputy Consul General.
He then served at the Italian Embassy in Teheran until February 1976 as Counselor, and, for a lengthy period, as Chargé d’Affaires.
Mr. de Franchis then returned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Rome, where he was assigned to the NATO Desk, first as Deputy Head and the Head, a post he held until September 1979.
Mr. de Franchis was then assigned to the Permanent Delegation of Italy to NATO, as First Counselor for political-military affairs. From July 1983 to July 1984 he was Deputy Permanent Representative of Italy to NATO.
From July 1984 until January 1988 Mr. de Franchis was Ambassador of Italy to Pakistan.
He took office as Deputy Secretary General of NATO in July 1989 and remained in such position until February, 1994 when he became Director General of Political Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Ambassador de Franchis took office as Permanent Representative of Italy to the North Atlantic Council in April 1998.
He is married and has four children.
Notes on Ambassador Bill & Kay Eagleton
“Ambassador William Eagleton (United States of America) was duly appointed Special Coordinator for Sarajevo and has been working indefatigably, in cooperation with the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina and under the authority of my Special Representative, to achieve the restoration of public services in Sarajevo.” Deployment of IFOR (12/13/95-2/14/96)
Ambassador Bill & Kay Eagleton operate Flying Carpet Fine Rugs and Weavings in Taos, New Mexico. Specializing in Kurdish weaving.
The Ambassador is the single most knowledgeable expert on Kurdish weaving that I know of anywhere.
Trusted Resource List – Rug & Carpet Dealers In The U.S.
“Kurdish Rugs of the Hartushi Tribes of Turkey”. Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.
Eagleton, William: An Introduction to Kurdish Rugs and other Weavings. Brooklyn: 1988.
Eagleton, William, An Introduction to Kurdish Rugs, Interlink Books, New York, 1988
The Emergence of a Kurdish Rug Type, by William Eagleton, Oriental Rug Review, Vol. 9/5
Eagleton’s advice: Travel light while witnessing history of world
Tales from the Bazaar – 92.08
Ethnic Cleansing Thwarted in Kosovo; Standoff in Iraq; and a Swiss Case
Kurdish Carpet and Kelim
Deployment of IFOR (12/13/95-2/14/96)
Sarajevo on line – depeche Forpronu
GAs in Sarajevo
Welcome to PJStar.com Legacy – Peoria, IL.
An Introduction to Kurdish Rugs and Other Weavings, reviewed by Kurt
Notes on Amina Okada
Amina Okada is curator of Indian art at the Musée Guimet in Paris.
Okada, Amina. Le Grand Moghol et ses peintres, miniaturistes des XVIe et XVIIe siècles
Okada, Amina. Indian Miniatures of the Mughal Court. Translated by Deke Dusinberre, New York: Harry N. Abrahms, Inc. Publishers, 1992.
Okada, Amina. Ajanta Variety Book Depot, Delhi, 1996 English.
Okada, Amina Ajanta.
OKADA, Amina, BILHANA POEMES D’UN VOLEUR D’AMOUR Attribués à Bilhana. Traduit du sanskrit par Amina OKADA. Série ‘NRF’. Collection Unesco d’oeuvres représentatives ‘CONNAISSANCE DE L’ORIENT’, série indienne. Broché 126 Pages IN 8 bon état (45104 ) GALLIMARD/UNESCO 1988 PARIS
CATALOGUE REDIGE PAR AMINA OKADA Miniatures de l’Inde impériale, les peintres de la cour d’Akbar (1556-1605)- Cat.expo Musée Guimet, 27 avril-10 juillet 1989
OKADA, Amina, Le motif floral dans les tissus moghols. Inde XVIIe et XVIIIe. Avant-propos de Krishna Riboud et analyse technique de Marie-Hélène Guelton. Paris, A.E.D.T.A.(Association pour l’étude et la documentation des textiles d’Asie). 1995,
von SCHROEDER Ulrich & OKADA Amina Bronzes bouddhiques et hindous de l’antique Ceylan. Chefs-d’oeuvre des muses du Sri Lanka. Paris: AFAA, 1991
Okada,Amina. The Prince Who Became a Beggar (Tales of Heaven and Earth) Dominique Thibault (Illustrator), Creative Education, 1997.
Okada, Amina. Indian Miniatures of the Mughal Court. Translated by Deke Dusinberre, New York: Harry N. Abrahms, Inc. Publishers, 1992.
A masterful and scholarly triumph. I cannot recommend Okada highly enough. He really covers the top Mughal artists comprehensively. The book is also a wonderful book to read. Well laid out and easy to match text to pictures. I will probably buy a second copy because my first is so tattered from using as a reference book.
Notes on Annemarie Schimmel
Schimmel, Annemarie, (1984). “Calligraphy and Islamic Culture”. New York: University Press.
Schimmel, Annemarie, Islam in India and Pakistan, (Leiden: 1982).
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Einsetzungsurkunden mamlukischer Emire” in Die Welt des Orients. Vol. 1: No. 4. 1949. 302-306.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Kalif und Kadi im spätmittelalterlichen Ägypten” in Die Welt des Islams. Vol. 24. 1942. 1-128.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Some Glimpses of the Religious Life in Egypt during the Later Mamluk Period” in Islamic Studies. Vol. 4. 1965. 353-392.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Review of Quest for Red Sulphur: The Life of Ibn `Arabi, by Claude Addas, and An Ocean Without Shore: Ibn Arabi, the Book, and the Law, by Michel Chodkiewicz” in Journal of Islamic Studies. Vol. 6: No. 2. 1995. 269-272.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Review of Die Terminologie Ibn `Arabis im “Kitab wasa’il as-sa’il” des Ibn Saudakin: Text, Übersetzung, und Analyse, by Manfred Profitlich” in ZDMG. Vol. 128. 1978. 371-372.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Review of Ibn `Ata’ Allah (m. 709/1309) et la naissance de la confrérie sadilite, by Paul Nwyia” in ZDMG. Vol. 125. 1975. 182-183.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Review of Die mamlukischen Sultansurkunden des Sinai Klosters, edited and translated by Hans Ernst” in ZDMG. Vol. 113. 1963. 296-297.
Schimmel, Annemarie. “Sufismus und Heiligenverehrung im Spätmittelalterlichen Ägypten” in Festschrift Werner Caskel zum siebzigsten Geburtstag 5. März 1966 gewidmet von Freunden und Schülern. Gräf, Erwin (edited by). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1968. 274-289.
Schimmel, Annemarie. As Through a Veil: Mystical Poetry in Islam. Lectures on the History of Religions, American Council of Learned Societies; (n.s.) no. 12. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
Notes on Annette Louise Ittig, Ph. D.
Annette Louise Ittig Ph.D., St. Antony’s College, Oxford, England UK. The last I heard Annette was working in Northern Afghanistan with some sort of aid agency. I worked with a woman when I was at the Smithsonian who was a friend of Annette Ittig and she indicated that Ittig was continuing her studies on horseback across northern Afghanistan.
Ph.D. in Islamic art at Oriental Institute, Oxford University. I am not sure but I believe that Ittig is the first person to get a Doctorate focusing on Oriental Rugs.
University of Toronto class of 1977.
Formerly Curatorial consultant for Carpet Museum of Iran in Teheran.
“A Guide to the Exhibition of Recent Acquisitions, the Carpet Museum of Iran”, Teheran, September 1978.
“A Persian Carpet of the 16th Century, the Carpet Museum of Iran”, Teheran, September 1978.
The Discovery Room, the Royal Ontario Museum, January 1978.
Ittig, Annette. Woven Dreams Oriental Carpets / Reves Tisses: Tapis D’Orient. 1994
“Kurdish Workshop Carpets – A Study In Tribal Patronage”. Washington DC: ICOC 1980.
Ittig, Annette. “A Talismanic Bowl” in AI. Vol. 18. 1982. 79-94.
Ittig, Annette, ed. 1992 The Carpets and Textiles of Iran. The Journal of the Society for Iranian Studies, v.25, nos.1-2
Ittig, Annette Louise
A catalogue of twentieth century coffee house paintings in the collection of Her Imperial Majesty Farah, Shabanu of Iran. Toronto: c 1977.
vii, 202 leaves, illus.; bibl. (pp 29-35).
Museol. thesis, University of Toronto.
Introduction (pp 1-28) traces the historical background and stylistic ancestry of the paintings in this collection, stored in the Negarestan Museums since 1975. The catalogue follows (pp 35 to 202); it is divided into two parts : iconography based on literary themes, and iconography derived from religious subjects.
Documentation of Afghanistan Synagogues
ISJM has given grants of $950 to Prof. Annette Ittig to document several sites of Jewish interest in Herat, Afghanistan including four former synagogues and a bath house. She commissioned photographs, measured drawings, and described the buildings. The Yu Aw Synagogue figures most prominently in her documentation, as it remains closest in form and function to its original use. This work is part of a larger project to document and protect the historic Old City of Herat.
Notes on Anthony and Robery Sherley
British Mercenaries and Pirates who served Shah Abbas.
1563 “Anthony Sherley born to Thomas the elder”. The Shirleys of Wiston
1571/81 “Robert Sherley born to Thomas the elder (Wiston church records lost. No official date of birth for Robert)”. The Shirleys of Wiston
Sir Anthony was in Persia from Dec 1, 1599 to May 1600. He was given 25,000 foot and 5,000 horse to train according to the rules and customs of the English militia. He was also commanded to reform and retrain the artillery. When he left Persia, he left his brother, Robert Sherley, behind with 14 Englishmen who lived in Persia for years. The Shirleys of Wiston
“1609 Robert Sherley was employed, as his brother had been, by the Persian monarch, as ambassador to several princes of Christendon, for the purpose of uniting them in a confederacy against the Turks. He first went into Poland, where he was honorably entertained by Sigismond the Third. In June of this same year he was in Germany, and received from the Emperor Rudolph II the title of Earl (Count) palatine and knight of the Roman Empire. Pope Paul the Fifth also conferred upon him the title of Earl (Count).
From Germany Sir Robert went to Florence and from thence to Rome, where he entered, attended by a suite of eighteen persons, on Sunday, the 27th of September, 1609. He next visited Milan, and then proceeded to Genoa, from whence he embarked to Spain, arriving in Barcelona in December 1609. He sent for his Persian wife and they remained in Spain, principally at Madrid, until the summer of 1611.”
Notes on Aqa Mirak
Aqa Mirak was the greatest painter of animals at the court of Shah Tahmasp. We can say that Aqa Mirak and Tahmasp Safavi were close and intimate friends but just how close is impossible for me to say… yet. Suffice it to say that Aqa Mirak was allowed unrestricted access to Tahmasp and when all artists were expelled from Tahmasp’s court Aqa Mirak was exempt.
Aqa Mirak was a master in the portraying action in animals and mythical beasts in miniature painting. he was later widely copied in Mughal art.
Fantastic Animals – Golestan of Sa’di
artnet.com: Resource Library: Aqa Mirak
La Miniature En Orient Plate 62 Portrait of the Prince
La Miniature En Orient Plate 61: Shah Tahmasp?
Dragon & Horseman – Sadiqi Beg (?)
La Miniature En Orient Plate 57: Portrait of a Young Woman
Notes on Armen Minasian
Armen Minasian is President and CEO of the Torcom Group, a conglomerate of Chicago’s leading oriental rug manufacturing, wholesale, retail and service companies. He directs the acquired interests of Chicago-based Nahigian Brothers, Inc., and the Joseph W. Fell Company. The firm maintains national lease operations as Nahigian Brothers Oriental Rug Galleries for Marshall Field’s, Dayton’s, Hudson’s and Burdines of Florida. Mr. Minasian was recently named a Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great by His Holiness Pope John Paul II in recognition of his support of charitable organizations.
Member Rugmark Board of Directors
Notes on Arthur Rhuvan Guest
Guest, Arthur Rhuvon. “Cairene Topography: El Qarafa According to Ibn Ez Zaiyat” in JRAS. 1926. 57-61.
Guest, Arthur Rhuvon. “A List of Writers, Books and Other Authorities Mentioned by El Maqrizi in his Khitat” in JRAS. 1902. 103-25.
Guest, Arthur Rhuvon. “A Servian Embassy to Egypt in the Fourteenth Century” in JRAS. 1913. 1047-1048.
Guest, Arthur Rhuvon. “Misr in the Fifteenth Century” in JRAS. 1903. 791-816.
Guest, A. R. “Description of an Arabic Manuscript Bought in Egypt 1898-1900 A.D.” in JRAS. 1901. 91-95.
Guest, A. R. “Review of Tarjumán Al-Ashwáq, by Muhyi’d-Din ibn Al-`Arabi, edited by Reynold A. Nicholson” in JRAS. 1913. 447-452.
Guest, A. R. “Review of Abû’l Mahâsin ibn Taghrî Birdî’s Annals, edited by William Popper” in JRAS. 1912. 1120-1128.
Guest, A. R. “Review of Materiaux pour Servir à la Géographie de l’Égypte, by Jean Maspero and Gaston Wiet” in JRAS. 1921. 624-627.
Guest, A. R. “Review of El Mawâ`iz wa el I`tibâr fî dhikr el Khitat wa el Âthâr by Maqrîzî, vol.1, part2 and vol.2, part1, edited by Gaston Wiet” in JRAS. 1921. 620-624.
Guest, A. R. “Review of El Mawâ`iz wa el I`tibâr fî dhikr el Khitat wa el Âthâr by Maqrîzî, vol.3, edited by Gaston Wiet” in JRAS. 1923. 469-470.
Guest, A. R. “Review of Some Cairo Mosques and Their Founders, by R. L. Devonshire” in JRAS. 1924. 116.
Guest, A. R. “Review of El Mawâ`iz wa el I`tibâr fî dhikr el Khitat wa el Âthâr by Maqrîzî, vol. 4, part 1, edited by Gaston Wiet” in JRAS. 1925. 155.
Guest, A. R. “Review of La Syrie àl’époque des mameloukes d’après les auteurs arabes, by Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes” in JRAS. 1925. 160-161.
Guest, A. R. “Review of The Treatise of al-Jazari on Automata: Leaves from a Manuscript of the “Kitab fi Ma`arifat al-Hiyal al-Handasiya” in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Elsewhere, by Ananda K. Coomaraswamy” in JRAS. 1925. 161-162.
Guest, A. R. “Review of L’Égypte musulmane et les fondateurs de ses monuments, by R. L. Devonshire” in JRAS. 1927. 898-899.
Guest, A. R. “Review of El Mawâ`iz wa el I`tibâr fî dhikr el Khitat wa el Âthâr by Maqrîzî, vol. 5, part 1, edited by Gaston Wiet” in JRAS. 1930. 140-141.
Guest, A. R. “Review of Gaibî et les grands faiencers égyptiens d’époque mamlouke, by Armand Abel” in JRAS. 1933. 186-188.
Guest, R. “Review of Extrait de l’histoire de l’Égypte. Vol. II, par Ahmad Ibn Iyâs, translated by R. L. Devonshire” in JRAS. 1933. 1012.
Guest, R. “Review of Extracts from Abû el Mahâsin’s Chronicle Entitled Hawâdith ad-Duhûr, Part 1-3, edited by William Popper” in JRAS. 1934. 129.
Guest, R. “Review of La céramique musulmane de l’Égypte, by Aly Bey Bahgat and Félix Massoul” in JRAS. 1934. 372-376.
Guest, R. “Review of Abû’l-Mahâsin ibn Taghrî Birdî’s Annals, Vol. 5, Part 3, edited by William Popper” in JRAS. 1936. 718-719.
Notes on Azerbaijan National Carpet Museum
Azerbaijan National Carpet Museum
8.2 Carpets Made to Last: A Walk Through Baku’s National Carpet Museum
National Carpet Museum
123 Neftchilar Avenue (former Lenin Museum), Baku.
Tel: (99-412) 93-05-01, 93-66-85
Hours: Tuesday to Sunday, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., closed Mondays
Admission: 3,000-12,000 manats
Students: 1,000 manats; extra charge for guide
Roya Taghiyeva, Director of the Museum, and Khadija Asadova, Scientific Secretary.
Notes on Bactria
Bactria was a province whose capitol was Bactra, present-day Wazirabad, formerly Balkh, and is very close to present day Mazar-i-Shariff .
Bactria was one of the 127 Persian provinces mentioned in the Book of Esther:
Esther 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this is Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:) KJV
Conquored by Alexander The Great in 328 BC and after his death, was a part of the Seleucid Empire.
In 256 BC, the Seleucid satrap (Governor) Diodotus I 256-235 BC established it as a separate kingdom.
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus In Parthia, B.C. 209-5. by Polybius
Euthydemia I and Demetrius I of Balkh
The kingdom was finally overrun by the Sakas (Scythians) about 130 BC.
Notes on Badi’ Uzman Mirza
Badi’ Uzman Mirza was the last Timurid prince of Herat. He was also ruler of Astrakhan and several lesser Northern Afghan cities. He was driven out by the Uzbeks and was forced to seek refuge with Ismail Safavi in Tabriz. Badi’ Uzman Mirza found life intolerable under the Safavi and left Tabriz for Istanbul when the city was captured by the Ottomans. Badi’ Uzman Mirza was able to arrive in Istanbul with much of his court (and treasure) intact. Rather than as a prisoner, he enjoyed the hospitality of the Sunni Ottoman until his death. The impact of this transfusion of Timurid court on the art and artistic expression of Ottoman art was profound.
A curved agate cup that is believed to be from the treasure of Badi’ Uzman Mirza is shown in Art of the Persian Court plate32. I believe that some of the Topkapi prayer rugs are from the treasure as well. I suspect this by analyzing the style of the art versus the provenance. Although it is simple speculation on my part I suspect that much of the treasure was disbursed in the late 19th century. There is evidence to suggest that pieces from the Imperial treasury were deaccessioned when the Turks were paying off war debts. This is about the same time that the Chelsea Carpet surfaced in London with no provenance. I suspect that the Chelsea is part of the same treasure horde.
Notes on Bamiyan
Center of Buddhist religion for Afghanistan in the Pre-Islamic period. Important trade city guarding the Southern passes through which the Silk Route turned south to India. It was at the siege of Bamiyan in 1221 that Mutugen son of Chagatai son of Cingis Qan was killed by an arrow from the wall. Cengiz was so saddened by this death and the realization of his own mortality that he spent 18 months near Bamiyan and caused all people of the region to die. The area was repopulated by an incredible influx of slave women who were supplied for the pleasure of Cingis Qan’s men. The descendants of those slave women are today’s Hazara.
Ancient city destroyed by Cingis Qan.
Location of two giant stone Buddhas.
After the death of Mutugen at the siege of Bamiyan Cingis Qan ordered the death of all living things and the destruction of the town (1221 my date). Ratchnevsky, Genghis Khan. Page 164.
Bamian is about 8000 feet above sea level.
N.B. Some of my early research indicated that Cingis Qan (Ghengis Khan) made camp near this statue for 18 months in about 1222 AD.