Guide to Turkmen Chodor Rugs & Carpets
Background / History
In 1219 the Mongols crushed the Khwarazm Shah and his Turkmen/Azeri allies. Two years later in 1221 the Mongol conquest pushed the Oghuz tribes including the Chodor from the Syr Dara region into the Kara Kum area and along the Caspian Sea. The Chodor appear to have stayed on the Mangyshlak Peninsula from then through the Timurid and the Shaybanid Uzbek periods.
In the early sixteenth century the Chodor were a confederate or aymaq in the Salor Sayin Khani confederation. The Chodor were primarily concentrated in the Mangyshlak Peninsula on the northeastern Caspian coast. I have not figured out the exact order but the Kalmuks moved into the Mangyshlak Peninsula, the Sayin Khan confederation broke up and the Chodor ended up southeast of Khiva loosely confederated but under the authority of the Yomud. There are indications that some Chodor ended up in the mid Amu Darya region near and if I recall properly north of Charjui.
In 1743 the Yomud captured Khiva briefly and again in 1767 but that time they held it for three years. In 1770 the Muhammad Amin Inaqof Qongrats, defeated the Yomuds and founded the Qongrat dynasty. Part and parcel of this was the breakup of the Yomud which gave the Chodor autonomy from the Yomud but still under the Khiva/Khwarezem Khans.
The Chaudor, seven or eight clans, have about 11,000 tents. They frequent the country lying between the S. shores of the Caspian and the Lower Amu.
Balfour on the Turkmen 1883.
Firstly, let us take those who are most to the north. The Chodors dwell in the country between the Caspian and northern Khiva — that is to say, on the southern slopes of the Ust Urt. They are computed to number twelve thousand tents, with certainly not fewer than five and possibly six or seven persons to each tent. As they have of late years been undisturbed, and have settled down into a regular mode of earning their existence, it is possible that their numbers have increased since Vambery computed them to be of the number mentioned.
The Turkmen by Demetrius Charles Boulger Part 3
Rare Chodor Main Carpet W&W
A rare Chodor Turkmen main carpet,
North Turkmenistan mid 19th century, (pile area) 8ft.5in. x 6ft.1in. 2.56m. x 1.86m. Slight overall wear, repair to center.
To our knowledge, less than five Chodor main carpets with four vertical rows of tauk nuska gols have been published. The wide flatwoven ends are rare survivals.
Early Chodor Main Carpet with Tauk Nuska Gul
circa 1875 Vojtek Blau Chodor Main Carpet
A Chodor main carpet, North Turkestan circa 1875 original checked selvages and remnants of kilim ends, selvages and ends fraying in areas, minor reweaves and foldwear, approximately 14ft. 8in. by 8ft. 9in. (4.47 by 2.67m.)
Chodor Main Carpet Circa 1880
circa 1880 foldwear, repaired foldwear, slits, scattered repiling
Chodor Carpet circa 1850
Origin: Central Asia, West Turkestan, circa 1850.
Size: approx. 247 x 142 cm.
Notes on Condition: Literature References. In good condition with original but partly restored selvages, long kilim ends missing on both sides.
Chodor Main Carpet
Origin: Central Asia, West Turkestan, 2nd half 19th century
Size: ca. 330 x 194 cm
Notes on Condition: In contrast to many other Chodor main carpets, the field pattern of 75 Tauk Nuska guls and secondary Erre guls is very clearly drawn here. In very good condition with high pile and the blue, flat-woven original shirazi; wide, long, striped kilims.
Chodor fragment, Turkoman, ca. 1880
Localized wear, repaired, repilings, overall good condition. Size 370 x 209 cm
A Chaudur (Chodor) Turkmen Shallow Tent-Bag (Torba)
The Chaudur (Chodor) produced a great quantity of functional and rather badly woven bags and carpets. Occasionally one comes across a piece with that sparkle found in the best weavings of the other tribes. This little piece has good color and is well made.
Turkmenistan 19th Century. Repaired slits, partial sides borders, overcast sides, repaired holes in the top edge. Approximately 1 ft. 4 in. by 3 ft. 3 in. (0.41 m. by 0.99 m.)
A Chaudur Turkmen Camel Decoration
Used in the Wedding Procession (Kejebelik). Turkmenistan 19th Century. Small repiled area upper border, minor repiled area lower edge, minor repairs to selvage. Approximately 2fl. 2 in. by 5fi. 6 in. (0.66 m. by 1.68 m.)
Warp: Wool, Z2S, natural brown
Weft: Wool, Z2S, 2 shoots, natural camel
Pile: Wool, 2Z, asymmetrical knot open to the right
Density: 8-9 horizontal, 14-15 vertical
Sides: 2 cords overcast in purple wool, each cord a pair of warps
Ends: Camel colored kilim hemmed and sewn
Colors: Purple, rust red, dark blue, light blue, blue-green, golden yellow, ivory, walnut
Pseudo-Chodor Group Chuval
Origin: Central Asia, West Turkestan. 1st half 19th century
Size: ca. 73 x 118 cm
Notes on Condition: Pile partly low, sides repaired, losses to upper end; flat woven back not preserved.
Pseudo-Chodor Group Chuval , Yomud Group
Origin: Central Asia, Turkmenistan
Width: 3’8” (116 cm) Length: 2’6” (80 cm)
Chodor Tent Band Fragment